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Friday, April 3, 2009

"Weed Science" or "Activation Explained!!"

This is the chemical structure of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive substituent of weed:


If I were to make THC in the lab, this is how I would do it (please don't be freaked out by all the chemical structures, they aren't completely necessary to understanding this story, but I find they help):


Looks pretty easy, right?  haha!!!

Plants however, make THC like this (ref):


Notice that there is an extra COOH group on the THC when the plant makes it. This difference is critical to understanding why people use weed the way they do.

Please stick with me people, because this is cool. I will first explain a little bit about polarity. The basics are that water (H2O) is really polar--it has a partial negative charge on the oxygen atom, partial positive charge on the hydrogen atoms. Other molecules and parts of molecules can be polar in the same way. The OH group and COOH group in THC-COOH are the most polar parts of that molecule. Polar molecules generally boil at higher temperatures than non-polar ones, because the polar ones like to stick their negative parts to other molecules' positive parts (tee hee), and this keeps them stuck together in solid or liquid form instead of gas form.

So why does everyone talk about THC and not THC-COOH? Well, if you heat things with COOH groups, they can lose carbon dioxide and just be left with H (a hydrogen atom, not too polar). So when you heat THC-COOH in a joint by lighting the joint on fire, that heat causes the THC-COOH to lose CO2 and become THC (the same thing happens in a vaporizer). THC is less polar than THC-COOH, so once the THC molecules are formed they immediately vaporize and go into your lungs, then into your blood, then into your brain where they work their munchy-inducing magic by activating cannabinoid receptors.

This is what happens in joints, vaporizers, & hot weed butter.

Speaking of your brain, in order for molecules to get inside your brain and have any effect, they have to pass through something called the blood-brain barrier.  It is extremely difficult for polar molecules to pass through this barrier, so turning the more polar THC-COOH (which would have trouble getting into your brain) into the less polar THC (which gets into your brain just fine) is crucial for marijuana to have the effects it is known for.

Oh, you like to make weed brownies??? Well, everyone knows you have to "activate" the weed by heating it in butter or oil first. Or is this just something that crazy potheads talk about? It turns out they're not crazy when it comes to getting high!!

Mad Bong Scientist, via Fuck Yeah Schwag.

Activation of the weed by heating it in butter serves to extract out all the THC-COOH molecules from the weed and into the butter. As we learned in the joint-smoking discussion above, heating the non-brain-penetrating THC-COOH molecules turns them into brain-penetrating THC molecules, and this is what happens to THC-COOH in hot weed butter.  If you don't do this step, the only effect you will feel is from the relatively small amount of THC naturally present in the plant.

Finally, a brief discussion on peeing. Our bodies get rid of chemicals by slowly burning them (combining them with oxygen). This process adds groups like OH and COOH, which make the molecules more polar. Eventually they become polar enough that they mix in with water and we pee them out... pee pee... ... ... ...  So, since THC-COOH in more polar than THC, our body can pee it out more easily.  So when you activate, smoke (or vaporize) weed, you are actually turning THC-COOH into THC using heat, which makes the molecules less polar and more likely to go into your brain, and in addition makes it more difficult for your body to get rid of them. Weed Science!!!!

62 comments:

  1. explain the science behind buttholes.

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    1. You must have one that doesn't work. Because this is only a bit of research on a piece of chemistry that you lack the brain power to understand.

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  2. So what's the deal with vaporizers???

    Also, why make the weed butter instead of just dumping some weed into brownie mix?

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    1. Are you serious? Did you read the article? It's fairly well explained.

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  3. Doesn't the butter making process extract the THC?

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  4. EMS, your first question:
    Vaporizers work basically the same way as joints, except vaporizers provide a more controlled environment for the reaction where the CO2 leaves and the subsequent boiling of THC to take place. They provide a lot of heat, which gets both jobs done, but not too much heat. If there is too much heat, you end up burning a lot of the THC. When you burn THC, it is no longer THC, and it can't get you high.

    Second question:
    I'm less sure of this. I bet if you did a side by side experiment where one person ate a given amount of weed raw, and the other just tossed that given amount of weed into some brownie batter, baked it, and ate it... I bet the brownie person would get more high, because more THC-COOH was turned into THC. But I think you make weed butter in order to make sure the THC-COOH to THC reaction goes as close to 100% conversion to THC as possible. That's my guess.

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  5. Anonymous, you are exactly right, the butter making process extracts the THC-COOH out of the cellulose matrix of the marijuana. And the heating of the butter in that process helps it occur effectively, but the heat also serves to turn the THC-COOH into THC.

    My question is, and I don't have an answer... do you really need to extract the THC out of the plant? I imagine, though I do not know, that your body would do just as good of a job at that in your stomach as you would in the stove.

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  6. apoptosis is the science of buttholes

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  7. That 6 pi electrocyclization would be pretty sweet if you do it in a catalytic asymmetric fasion. Like with a chiral acid catalyst or something.

    Actually, that should be "assymetric," having to do with the measurement of asses, I mean.

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  8. Great article. Question, based on your information, when cooking with cannabis, would you recommend cooking at a temperature just below the burning point of the THC to get the optimum amount of extraction? And how much time do you think it take to for said extraction? Thanks!

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  9. haha, excellent question. I should preface this by saying I don't condone any illegal activities, but hypothetically speaking, this is what I would do. In terms of extracting the THC-COOH from the cannabis using butter or oil, somewhere around the boiling point of water over the course of an hour or two should be sufficient. Grinding up the cannabis would also help this process significantly, to allow the oil the penetrate the plant tissue as deeply as possible. I have heard that this process can be done in a pot, mixing around half and half butter and water, putting the ground cannabis in a tied-off cheese cloth, putting that into the butter/water mixture, and boiling this mixture for a few hours (caution, it might stink things up). You can then let this mixture cool down, and before the butter solidifies you can remove the cheese cloth, squeeze out all the liquids into the butter/water mixture, and discard the cheese cloth. Since the butter is less dense than water, it will float to the top and solidify. You can then just pull the butter off the top of the water, or if you have trouble with that you can put the whole thing in the freezer, the water will freeze and you can just scrape off the butter. This process has the advantage of extracting out any non-THC impurities into the water, which you can just discard. This process is known as an aqueous-organic extraction. In this process you have extracted all of the THC-COOH out of the plant and into the butter, and possibly converted some of it to THC.

    To really get to the answer to your question of the temperature required to convert the THC-COOH to THC in the cooking process... In the literature I have found temperatures from 75 degrees Celsius (for 2h) (Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 1989, vol 67, p 335-344) all the way up to 195 degrees celsius (time not mentioned) (Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1940, vol 62, p 1237-1240). In the actual brownie or cake mixture there are things like sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, also in baking powder) that can speed this process up. So, I would say your average brownie-baking temperature of 175 degrees celsius (~350 degrees F) over the course of 30 minutes or so should do the job of converting most or all of the THC-COOH to THC.

    Good luck, hypothetically :-)

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    1. you can also heat the plant matter in the oven at 225 F - 240 F for 45 min, prior to extracting into the oil (butter, olive, coconut oil, ghee, etc.)...know as decarboxylating..essentially this is converting the thc-a (a for acid) molecule into pure thc by eliminating the acid molecules attached...oncle the acid is eliminated it converts the non-psychoactive thca into the psychoactive thc, cbn, cbd, etc...many links to to this info just research decarboxylating

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  10. Thanks for the quick response. I'm in Colorado and own a dispensary. The reason for my question is that we've been having a hard time getting our butter consistent week to week and am about to start a series of experiments as it where to see if I can dial in the best method.

    Extraction temp/time seem to be the biggest variables. If THC burns off between 180-200C why recommend the temp of boiling water? (95 C in Colorado) Wouldn't a higher temperature produce better results?

    Thanks and next time, I'll email you.

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  11. Well, the only disadvantage to a higher temperature is that you run the risk of either the THC-COOH or the THC decomposing to some sort of non-psychoactive derivative. That is the only reason I suggest doing the extraction around boiling water temperature, then leaving the baking process to finish the THC-COOH to THC conversion. It might work just fine extracting around 180-200C, and certainly higher temperatures would make for better extraction out of the cellulose/lignin matrix of the plant. If you are selling the butter directly to consumers, it might be a good idea to do the extraction at a higher temperatures, b/c who knows what they will do with it.

    I think you are on the right track though, time and temperature are definitely the two most important variables here. If I were in your situation I would probably be proposing the same exact experiments. I would definitely hold either time or temperature constant though, so you can make accurate comparisons between experiments. Certainly lower temperatures for longer times runs less risk of unwanted decomposition of THC-COOH or THC.

    No reason to e-mail me, this is a great discussion to have on the blog. Keep the questions coming!

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  12. To the anonymous owner of the cannabis dispensary in Colorado- Don't forget about how atmospheric pressure affects boiling temperature. Boiling temperatures at high altitude are lower than at sea level so just because you are boiling a liquid doesn't mean you are at the appropriate temperature for THC-COOH extraction and or conversion to THC- Try cooking your butter in a pressure cooker and then check out the results.

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  13. Just stumbled across a ool paper about weed-chemistry:

    The role of fluorine substitution in the structure–activity
    relationships (SAR) of classical cannabinoids

    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 17 (2007) 1504–1507
    by
    Peter J. Crocker,a Anu Mahadevan,a Jenny L. Wiley,b
    Billy R. Martinb and Raj K. Razdana,*

    such papers get me thinking I joined the wrong group for my phd because weed-science is way cooler than almost any other.

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  14. Wow, yeah. Pretty huge effect. Fluorine is definitely not the same as hydroxyl. The one analogue that is 50x more potent than THC is pretty intriguing. Thanks for the paper!

    Yeah, weed science seems pretty cool. Speaking as someone who switched from the field of organic chemistry (which by year 3 I was super-duper tired of) to environmental/nano/surface chemistry... I have found that it is great to learn new stuff, but academic research is academic research, and regardless of field it can be a pain in the butt. Perhaps a career in medicinal chemistry awaits you?

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  15. Yeah you made a pretty good guess there, doing my phd in Medicinal Chemistry (some cancer related stuff: Methionine aminopeptidase, and Fumagillin are some buzzwords). And I do hope that a career awaits me there :P
    btw: I really enjoy reading your articles here, they are totally hilarous !

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  16. Good luck surviving grad school & stuff. It's much better on the other side, trust me.
    Thanks for your kind words. I'm psyched you're into my blog. Tell your friends!! :-)

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  17. There is an interesting phenomenon in hair testing for marijuana. First the test is for COOH and orally consumed products do not seem to incorporate into the hair matrix. There are only a couple of studies on this however.

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    1. Interesting! I'll have to look into that. If you find the references please send them my way. Thanks!

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  18. This is a really good article, If you don't mind I would like to cite this for an upcoming paper

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    1. Thanks! Feel free. You might also check out the peer reviewed literature I link to.

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  19. Yes! I'm really glad I stumbeld across this blog, keep up the good work!

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    1. Thanks! I'll post some new material soon, I promise!

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  20. Hey,

    I am hypothetically interested in a specific situation where weed is mixed with cream, butter, milk or some other fatty substance, and water, and simmered for a certain period of time to make a tea. I was just wondering how long you think it would take to convert the majority of the THC-COOH without baking it?

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    1. What you propose is a form of something known as a liquid liquid extraction: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquid%E2%80%93liquid_extraction

      The trouble with your tea proposal is that, especially once converted from THC-COOH to THC, the THC will be more soluble in the fatty substance than in the water. Meaning that if you were to, hypothetically, ingest the tea... while it may contain some THC and have some effects, the majority of the THC would be in the fatty substance.

      To address your question though, as luck would have it, the boiling point of water really helps out. If you simmer a mixture of butter and water, the temperature will never go above 100 degrees C, the boiling point of water. I don't know the temperature at which THC decomposes, but it is likely far below that temperature. So, the longer the better... at some point this would become useless, but I frankly have no idea how long that would take. I would give it a few hours though.

      Another point is that you should make sure to keep the simmering butter/water mixture covered. If you do not, you might, hypothetically of course, boil away lots of the THC by doing a super-ancient extraction technique called a steam distillation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_distillation

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    2. Thanks for the quick reply,
      So (and I ask purely out of scientific interest of course) ingesting the entire mixture (water and fatty substance) would yield effects? Or would the solution of the fatty substance and THC render the THC indigestible?

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    3. Ingesting everything would surely yield effects, but ingesting the water portion would be pointless, as most of the THC will reside in the fatty portion, since THC itself is more fat-like than water-like (and like dissolves like). What type of substance the THC is dissolved in... and how that affects digestability... that involves the human body which is way too complicated for my brain. You'll want to look up things like "bioavailability".

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  21. So I have been searching the internet for days looking for ideal temperatures for activating weed. I was ready to decarboxylate my weed in the oven on a sheet pan before I found that many people believe that the weed doesn't NEED to be activated for this to work and they can just eat the weed raw. I kept researching and found this blog.

    From what I can gather, raw cannabis does have some active THC in it due to the curing process, but heating up the weed in an oven allows a large majority of the non-active THC to become active.

    My plan as of now would be to heat up my bud in enough coconut oil for my cookie recipe. 240degrees farenheit for 50 minutes seems like the middleground for everything I've been reading. I would then use that oil in my cookie recipe without exceeding the vaporization temperature for cannabis.

    My question is, will it matter if I exceed the vaporization temps for cannabis while baking the cookies? I would think no because I will have already extracted it into the coconut oil. Thanks in advance!

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    1. Excellent question. It will matter, but I'm not sure how much. Just like distillers vaporize the lower-boiling ethanol out of a mixture of ethanol and water, it is possible to "boil away" thc from your coconut oil. So as long as you can make cookies that taste OK and stay below the boiling point of thc, that's what I would do. However, there is relatively little thc compared to coconut oil and other cookie ingredients... and when this is the case, it is easy for thc molecules to get "stuck" on the surfaces and inside of other ingredients. So, again, not sure how much it matters. Unfortunately nobody has published any carefully controlled study on this matter that I can find.

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    2. Thanks for the response! The batch of cookies called for 10 minutes at 375degreesF so I figured 300degreesF (<316dF which is the thc vaporization temp)for 20 minutes might work. I have previously cooked a different batch for the recommended 10 minutes at 375 so I'll return with comparisons.

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    3. Ok so for this batch, I baked em for 23 minutes and then turned the oven off. Kept it at 300degrees Farenheit the whole time til I opened the oven. Extracted 8.98 grams of fresh mids and about 6 grams of heavily vaped mids into 1 cup of coconut oil. Used a random amount of liquid soy lecithin as well. just covered the top of the 9x11 inch pyrex dish filled with oil. Kind of spread it like you see in those fancy ads for expensive food where there is only like 2 leaves on the plate but some kind of dressing is arbitrarily drooped across the plate like 3 times back and forth. Well I did that over the whole dish. After I strained the bud out of the oil after the extraction, it came out to a half a cup of oil. That was just enough for this cookie batch thing I bought at Walgreens. Made 11 cookies. Decent size. My tolerance is embarassingly high. I haven't really been high in about 5 months. I vape but never get above a 4. Well I ate 1 of the cookies at 6:14. And as you can tell, it's hit me pretty hard. The new technique of not baking the cookies above 314 degrees F (the boiling point of THC) was a great success. Not sure if it was just that I used fresh bug though haHA

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    4. Wowzers! Soy lecithin! That is a great idea. I've never heard of anyone using that. Between that and the oil, it should do a great job of dissolving all the THC. Glad your experiment was a success. Thanks for reporting back!

      Your comment cracked me up!

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  22. Hello, another question about baking with THC. The cookies I made using raw bud were revolutionary. Only used about 40$ worth of weed (quad) and ended up with 11 cookies that put all of my veteran pothead friends on there asses.

    This is definately how I am going to get high from now on so I am looking to optimize.

    My question for you: Is there anyway to know the optimal ratio of raw weed/coconut oil for when I am extracting the THC into the oil? Not too little weed that I am sacrificing potency, but not too much that there would be too much THC for the amount of oil I would have. Any thoughts?

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    1. Great question. So again, this is all guesswork, because finding the absolute correct answer to this question is not trivial. I'm assuming a maximum concentration of THC in coconut oil of 2 molar. Also assuming a 3.5% by weight concentration of THC in weed. Here's how this math goes. (2 mol THC/1 L oil)(314.5 g THC/1 mol THC)(1 g weed/0.035 g THC)(1 oz/28.3 g) = 635 oz weed/1 L oil. So if you have 1 oz weed, you could probably theoretically dissolve all the THC within it in 1.6 mL oil, which is a super-small amount of oil. In reality you'll obviously run into issues using such small amounts of oil. Problems are mainly practical, and include the amount of oil that will stick to the weed itself. You are not limited by the solubility then, if my assumptions were correct. There are fancy lab setups called continuous liquid/solid extractors that would be appropriate for this kind of problem but probably not practical for your purposes. So, this issue is pretty complex, and the answer has moved beyond science and into engineering. If it were my problem I would use as little oil as possible while still having enough to deal with on a practical level, making sure the oil penetrates every bit of the solid I'm trying to extract the chemical from.

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  23. First I have to say, this is an amazing break down of the since behind THC activation and and the conversations on this post have been entertaining, fascinating, and most of all informative.I have been using a method where I grind up 6 grams for ever sick ( or half cup) of butter that I will use. I put the ground up weed into a small mason jar and set it inside the over for 12 minutes at 320(F). I'll pull it out and then immediately put the weed in a jar that will accommodate both the weed and butter then let it slow cook in the oven for 20 hours on 200(F). I'm wondering if either of the temperatures should be adjusted for optimal THC extraction and really just looking for any general tips to improve the process.

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    1. I appreciate that you have enjoyed learning about the science behind THC activation. I'm happy to answer questions relating to the science. However, I'm not here to give advice on how to best make weed butter or anything like that, because frankly I have no idea.

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    2. Which is understandable. Just thought I would try to pick your brain and it was just a general question that I was hoping you and others would have input on.

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    3. I find I get a very potent canna-oil when I put a 7x11 pyrex dish filled with a quad of very finely grinded bud and a half a cup of coconut oil in the oven preheated at 245 degrees for 50 minutes. I strain the weed out of with oil with a metal strainer and then use that oil in any baking mixture that calls for butter or cooking oil.

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    4. Also include enough liquid soy lecithin to cover a decent amount of the top of the oil/weed mixture in the pyrex dish before you put it in the oven. Cover it with foil to avoid the smell going crazy and don't cook with the oil using temperatures over the vaporization point of THC which is like 316 degrees

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  24. This is a fantastic page. I was wondering if you could elaborate on one area, how pressure has an effect on the process.

    Assuming I use a pressure cooker set to three atmospheres, and I normally put vegetative mass and oil together at boiling water temperature (99.9 celcius), do I need to use a much lower temperature since I'm cooking at 3 atmospheres instead of 1 atmosphere (in order to avoid destroying the THC).

    Thank you in advance.

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    1. High pressures are indeed used when extracting stuff (in this case, THC and its derivatives) out of solids (in this case cannabis' planty matter) using some sort of liquid (oil in this case). This process goes by many names, one of which is "pressurized liquid extraction" (PLE): http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.11.087 (subscription required)

      The big question you pose here, is how fast THC decomposes at certain temperatures. I have not been able to find reliable data on this. The closest I have come is this open-access article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00450610903258144 but it deals with the more highly concentrated extracts... so I'm not sure how much light it sheds on this. One thing the paper does point out that exposure of extracts to sunlight increases their rate of decomposition. Photochemistry can make some crazy stuff happen, and you don't always want crazy stuff happening. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photochemistry

      There is only one reason I can think of that high pressures would increase the rate of THC decomposition, and that is if the cannabis is being exposed to higher pressures of oxygen--an extremely reactive gas that is usually responsible for the decomposition of most organic matter. So, if your setup pressurizes to 3 atmospheres by just heating the air inside (which would seem impossible if your temperature is kept at 99.9 Celsius, see the gas laws http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_laws) BUT if you pressurize by boiling a bit of water, that would keep the "partial pressure" provided by oxygen relatively low--which would be good from a THC-preserving perspective. That is presumably what is going on, with the water from the cannabis being boiled to provide the pressure. But, you might consider adding a bit of water to your mix... just a thought.

      So, assuming the higher pressures just help with the extraction process by "pressing" the extraction liquid deeper into the plant tissue, and doesn't increase decomposition....I think in the absence of any evidence to suggest THC is stable at higher temperatures, keeping it at the lower temperatures (99.9 Celsius), while possibly not necessary, is probably a good idea.

      You know, kind of a pie-in-the-sky setup would be if you could purge your pressure cooker with nitrogen or argon, to displace all the more-highly-reactive-oxygen... That's what I always do in the lab is run reactions under an "inert atmosphere" (nitrogen) to minimize potential for decomposition.

      Honestly, to really get to the bottom of any of this, you need to get some laboratory equipment and do some controlled experiments... not sure if this is all for personal use or as part of a state dispensary.. if its the latter, I'm sure there are plenty of MS or PhD chemists looking for extra work who could "consult" and get you set up. Just a simple gas chromatograph (~$400 used on ebay) would go a long way.

      Thanks for your question, we touched on a lot of neat science!

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    2. to more directly answer your question... you might be able to get away with lower temperatures... I could only speculate, and your guess is as good as mine here I think. It would certainly lower the chance of THC decomposition, but might also lower your extraction efficiency... This is such a complex process chemically that there's no way to tell without doing the experiment (one at 50 celsius, one at 90 celsius, for example)... but how to judge the results is tricky. The human mind is quite a bad analytical tool... which is why i suggested the chromatograph. Good luck!

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    3. Here's a better high pressure extraction paper (subscription still required): http://dx.doi.org./10.1016/j.chroma.2005.06.072

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  25. Hi, I may or may not be from way out in the UK where there isn't as much development in these process' and - I presume - it is much rarer that people would bake cookies ect (Especially where im from), so I was wondering if, hypothetically speaking, there may be another way to eliminate the CO2 from the THC-COOH... free of heat? or requiring very little?
    also, is it possible to extract and remove the CO2 into a strong alcoholic drink such as vodka, using the ethanol as the solvent in the same way that 'Dabs' use butane? For example, I may or may not have read that there are ways of making 'cannabis vodka' yet they all sound so highly complex, would it be possible to simply just heat the cannabis in a bottle of vodka for a specific amount of time and then drink it...?

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    1. Elimination CO2 is also called "decarboxylation". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decarboxylation

      There are LOTS of other ways to do it other than heat, but none I would recommend for someone not trained in chemistry. You can treat things with acids or bases to speed up the CO2 removal, but I'm not sure whether this has been done with THC-COOH or not. Developing new reactions is not trivial unfortunately.

      If for some reason you only want to use a little bit of heat, you could simply extend the time. Heat speeds up reactions, but if you use less heat the reaction will be slower and so require more time.

      I don't think ethanol would have any significant effect on the rate of this particular reaction... but you never know. The THC and THC-COOH would both be highly soluble in ethanol though, so simply extracting the chemicals using a strong liquor should work. This is known as solid/liquid extraction:
      http://www.gunt.de/download/extraction_english.pdf

      As for converting the THC-COOH to THC once it is in the ethanol... heat should work the same, just be careful as ethanol is flammable. DO NOT boil the ethanol as that produces highly flammable ethanol vapors which can ignite extremely easily, especially over a gas stove. Gentle heating is similarly dangerous. So, you could just rely on the THC that is naturally present on the plant. The THC-COOH may or may not be wasted, as it is subjected to some pretty crazy conditions once in the digestive system... those may cause THC-COOH to THC conversion.

      There are no easy answers here. Figuring this out scientifically would take some relatively specialized equipment and lots of time. The data may be out there, I just haven't been able to find it. so, these are just educated guesses.

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    2. Ah thanks! Someone should look into this for a mad party drink!

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    3. If you keep the alcohol in the bottle, and set it in simmering water for an hour or two it will activate it. Don't make the water level higher than the top of the bottle though, you want it to stand up inside the pot. You can do this with a crock pot too.
      It works better if you let your plant material soak in your alcohol for a few weeks before this step.

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  26. Thank you so much for your nice and helpful explanation. Long time a friend told me that in order to activate THC we should heat it to change its conformation from cis to trans. Whit the time the trans come back to a cis conformation and that is way THC is inactive in the body. However Now I see that all that information was not more than BS.

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  27. Is there a saturation max for thc example world be if I pour sugar into water there is a point where the water will not desolve anymore sugar unless you add heat wich leads to supersaturation. Does my question make sense?

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    1. I can't find any data on that, but my best guess is that it does.

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  28. Hi...Can you tell me how much time need to pass before all thc is activated withouth manual activation..I heard that thc is activated by its own over time..Is that a matter of months or years or what ? Thx

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  29. when you make weed brownies, shouldn't the process of making weed butter be unnecessary since you bake the brownies? the heat of the oven should turn the thc-cooh into thc, shouldnt it?

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    1. Yeah I've pondered the same thing. I can only hypothesize since there is so little data on this out there. But, my hypothesis is that temperatures reached in the process of making weed butter are higher than temperatures in baking. Keep in mind the brownie batter doesn't necessarily reach the same temperatures as the oven, as some of the water from the batter is evaporating and lowering the temperature. It could also be a time thing... so, sure some thc-cooh will turn into thc in the oven, but not all of it in the time that it takes to bake. So, making weed butter outside the oven just provides that extra time. I wish there were data on any of this! It must be out there, but just not published anywhere...

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  30. Hey thanks for this blog, I'm a recently retired military guy who is new to the medical marijuana world and I do enjoy the research ! I'll keep an eye back here from time to time and if I have a Q that I can't find answers to I'll be sure to try here.

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